All You Need To Know About Domestic Wastewater Treatment

Posted on: 13 January 2021

Wastewater management presents a myriad of challenges to homeowners. A faulty wastewater system causes foul odours and land contamination. Such situations could get you in trouble with the local authorities. Besides, you will have a difficult time selling the property. So, what entails an effective domestic wastewater treatment system? Below is a comprehensive extract. 

There are two types of domestic wastewater management systems; centralised and decentralised systems. Centralised systems are commonly used in urban and peri-urban areas. Waste and stormwater from your home are directed into a public drainage system. The water flows into a treatment plant. At the plant, the wastewater undergoes various treatment processes such as sedimentation, coagulation, filtration and disinfection. The treated water can be used in households to flush toilets and clean homes. It can also be used by firefighters or in water sports fields. In Australia, recycled wastewater is supplied in purple pipes. It helps homeowners to differentiate fresh drinking water from the recycled water. 

A decentralised system is one where the wastewater is treated on-site. Unlike a centralised wastewater management system, it is cheap and easy to install. Besides, you do not have to incur extra bills. The system can be used in both rural and urban areas. Typically, the system involves the installation of a septic tank that receives wastewater from your home. Septic tanks are underground chambers designed to treat wastewater through aerobic and anaerobic processes.  

An anaerobic septic tank has a straightforward operating mechanism. Wastewater in the septic tank settles inside the tank. Over time, solids settle at the bottom, leaving liquids at the top. Anaerobic bacteria break down the sediments, thus reducing the amount of solid waste inside the tank. Liquids are directed to a gravel filled drain field where they are absorbed into the ground. The aerobic septic tank is an improvement to the anaerobic wastewater management system. The tank is divided into three. The first chamber breaks down solid waste through anaerobic processes. Liquids are pushed into the second chamber where aerobic bacteria break down any solids in the water. The water moves into a third chamber where it is treated. Water from the third tank can be recycled and used for cleaning and farming. 

As a rule, your domestic wastewater management system should be installed by a qualified and experienced professional. The technician will access the size of your household to determine the size of the septic tank. He or she will also conduct regular septic tank maintenance such as adding additives and emptying the tank.